Fabrication of autonomous or remotely controlled microrobots presents unique challenges concerning design, fabrication process, and encoding operational capabilities. Integration of computer-aided design (CAD) to microfabrication technologies has been a significant advancement to realize sophisticated 3D designs that could not be conceivable with the conventional microfabrication techniques with limited design flexibility and compositional functionality. Introduction of chemical versatility to the 3D-printed microrobot bodies would allow further functionalities to be encoded, and hence could lead to novel design opportunities for microrobots. To prove the concept, we show the first computer-controlled bubble-propelled micromotor, with compartmentalized placement of the catalyst and effective ejection of the jet bubbles in order to produce efficient propulsion from the catalytic reaction.
3D complex multipatterning of model microflowers. Confocal image of the patterned microflowers with 3D reconstruction of the z‐stack planes.